Roman emperors: List of emperors of the Roman Empire

Many Roman emperors, from Augustus to Claudius to Nero, left their stamp on the history of the Roman Empire.

The Roman Empire, or Imperium Romanum in Latin, refers to the political and military entity that existed on the ancient Roman territory from 27 BC to 476 AD. Wars, power struggles, and acts of treachery shaped the history of the Roman Empire and were inextricably related to the list of Roman emperors. There were a number of Roman emperors that came one after the other, and some of them left more of an imprint on history than others throughout this time.



Augustus: First Roman emperor

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • Grand-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar
  • Reign: 27 to 14 BC

Augustus, formerly known as Octavian, was born in Rome in 63 BC and became the first emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty because of his thirst for revenge over Caesar’s assassination (he was the grand-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar). In order to achieve this, Augustus created the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Lepidus. The Principate of Augustus was soon founded when Augustus turned against his erstwhile friends (during the Battle of Actium). On January 16, 27 BC, he was proclaimed Emperor and served in that capacity until 14 AD.

Tiberius: Emperor exiled to Capri

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • Son-in-law and adopted son of Augustus
  • Reign: 14 to 37 AD

Tiberius, the adopted son and son-in-law of Augustus, ascended the throne of the Roman Empire in 14 AD and ruled until his death in 37 AD. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, Tiberius made a name for himself in the military field. For most of the decade Tiberius was in charge of crucial campaigns, mostly in Germania. His reign was interspersed with political and economic changes. Upon the death of his son Drusus II, Tiberius voluntarily went into exile on Capri Island. On this island he dismissed and later killed a governor who had previously tried to overthrow him.

Caligula: Tyrannical emperor

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • Great grandson of Augustus and son of Germanicus
  • Reign: 37 to 41 AD

The Roman emperor Caligula was the son of Germanicus and a great-grandson of Augustus. He was the third ruler of the Roman Empire and a member of the powerful Julio-Claudian family. Caligula ruled Rome and its empire during the years 37 to 41. His reputation as a cruel ruler was cemented over those four years. Throughout his reign, Caligula would not hesitate to have his closest associates murdered, and he had a deep-seated animosity against the Senate. Caligula was killed at Rome in 41 by a gang of praetorians, who believed he was either ill or mad.

Claudius: Who became emperor by chance

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • Nephew of Tiberius and uncle of Caligula
  • Reign: 41 to 54 AD

Claudius was the only person who could have been Emperor after Caligula. He took power in 41 and stayed in charge until 54. He was the first emperor to be born somewhere other than Italy, but he was also part of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Claudius was Tiberius’s nephew and Caligula’s uncle. Claudius was able to get some political projects done (like expanding the Empire and taking over Brittany), but it was harder for him to find love. Before he died in 54, he had his third wife, Messalina, killed. His death was blamed on his fourth wife, Agrippina the Younger, who then put her son, Nero, on the throne.

Nero: Emperor turned despot

  • Julio-Claudian Dynasty
  • Grand-nephew and adopted son of Claudius
  • Reign: 54 to 68 AD

As the final member of the Julio-Claudian line to claim the title of Roman emperor, Nero became a totalitarian ruler. Claudius adopted him as a son, making him his grandnephew. During his reign from 54 to 68, numerous significant events occurred, including the murder of his mother Agrippina (and the suspicion of the assassination of his brother Britannicus), persecutions of Christians, and the rebuilding of the Domus Aurea after the destruction of Rome in 64. Poppaea Sabina’s husband of ten years, Nero, killed himself in 68 after being removed from power.

What happened in the Year of the Four Emperors

  • Four emperors: Galba, Othon, Vitellius, Vespasian
  • Year 68 AD

Following Nero’s death in 68 CE, four new emperors ruled the Roman Empire that year (hence the name, “Year of the Four Emperors”). Successors Galba, Otto, and Vitellius ruled the Roman Empire in turn until Vespasian arrived to put an end to the civil wars. War and conflict among the many armies do occur during the Year of the Four Emperors.


Vespasian: Reforming emperor

  • Flavian Dynasty
  • Originated from the plebs
  • Reign: 69 to 79 AD

In 69, Vespasian restored order to the Roman Empire and became the first Emperor of the Flavian Dynasty. Originally from the plebs, Vespasian enjoyed the image of a reforming emperor, with a whole series of fiscal and legislative reforms undertaken. We owe him, among other things, the introduction of a tax on urine, Pecunia non olet. Vespasian was also responsible for the construction of the Colosseum, which was completed in 80 during the reign of his son Titus. Vespasian died in 79, having been ill for a decade.

Titus: Emperor who conquered Jerusalem

  • Flavian Dynasty
  • Son of Vespasian
  • Reign: 79 to 81 AD

Titus, the son of Vespasian and a member of the Flavian dynasty, succeeded to the throne following his father’s death in 79. Titus, unlike his father, reigned as Roman Emperor for just two years. In the span of two years, the Romans conquered Jerusalem and massacred the Jews (Titus, on the other hand, had plans for the Jewish Princess Berenice) and Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the city of Pompeii. We don’t know what killed Titus in 81, although it was either disease or poison.

Domitian: Last of the Flavians

  • Flavian Dynasty
  • Son of Vespasian
  • Reign: 81 to 96 AD

Brother of the emperor Titus, Domitian was the last ruler of the Roman Empire from the Flavian dynasty. Domitian, like his father Vespasian, extended the average length of a Roman emperor’s rule to over 10 years (from 81 to 96 AD). Domitian was typically seen as a dictator who did not hesitate to remove the opponents of the state from Rome, while being at the origin of many political choices (the growth of the Roman economy, the wars of Agricola, etc.).


Nerva: Advisor who became emperor

  • Dynasty of the Antonine
  • Advisor to Nero and Flavian
  • Reign: 96 to 98 AD

Nerva, who had served as Nero’s adviser and later that of the other members of the Flavian dynasty, ascended to the throne in 96 and ruled until 98. He established his own dynasty, the Antonine. In the face of financial woes and a lack of support from the Roman military, Nerva was soon pressured into naming a successor. Following his adoption of Trajan, he died a few months later of natural causes. Historians emphasize Nerva’s ability to facilitate a peaceful transfer of power.

Trajan: Best of the Roman emperors

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Adopted son of Nerva
  • Reign: 98 to 117 AD

The Roman historian Tacitus called Trajan “the greatest of the Roman emperors” since his name was synonymous with the empire’s greatest victories and its greatest growth. Trajan was a member of the Antonine dynasty and Nerva’s adoptive son. During his reign from 98 to 117, Trajan fought many battles against the Dacians in Armenia and Mesopotamia with the help of the Roman Army. With the money he amassed in these campaigns, he helped build several structures, including Trajan’s Forum, home to the world-famous Trajan column.

Hadrian: Scholarly emperor

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Adopted son of Trajan
  • Reign: 117 to 138 AD

Roman emperor Hadrian, a member of the Antonine dynasty and the adoptive son of Trajan, ruled from AD 117 to 138. The philosophical and literary Hadrian ended the imperial expansion strategy of his predecessor, Trajan. He was remembered as a peaceful ruler who oversaw the construction of several structures, including the wall that bears his name (Hadrian’s Wall). Hadrian faced the Jewish uprising known as the Bar Kokhba revolt during his reign.

Antoninus Pius: Emperor of consolidation

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Adopted son of Hadrian
  • Reign: 138 to 161 AD

Antoninus Pius, the adoptive son of Hadrian, served as a magistrate for a very long time. He held the offices of quaestor, praetor, consul, and proconsul of Asia before he was finally elevated to the throne as Emperor. The second-longest reigning Roman emperor after Augustus, he took pride in his Nîmes heritage (Antoninus Pius reigned from 138 until his death in 161). Member of the Antonine dynasty Antoninus Pius, like his predecessor, left a mark of his passing by having a wall built in his honor (Antonine Wall).

Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher emperor

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Son-in-law and adopted son of Antoninus
  • Reign: 161 to 180 AD

The concept of a philosopher emperor is often used when referring to Marcus Aurelius, the final emperor of the Pax Romana. The founder of Stoicism and author of “Thoughts to Myself,” Marcus Aurelius, was faced with the horrors of battle. Along with being Antoninus’ son-in-law, Aurelius was also Antoninus’ adoptive son. Wars with the Parthian Empire and the Marcan Wars occurred during his reign (161–180). Emperor Aurelius, a member of the Antonine dynasty, took the unprecedented choice not to adopt an heir before his death in 180.

Lucius Verus: Co-emperor

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Adopted son of Antoninus and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius
  • Reign: 161 to 169 AD

It was possible for the Roman Empire to have two emperors at once at various points throughout its history. This occurred between the years 161 and 169, when Lucius Aurelius Verus (whose father was also named Lucius Aelius) served as co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius. Lucius Verus, a major player in the Parthian conflict, fought the Germanic Marcomanni on the Danube River a few months before his own demise. As the adoptive son of Antoninus and the son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius, Verus was also a member of the Antonine dynasty.

Commodus: Bloodthirsty emperor

  • Antonine Dynasty
  • Son of Marcus Aurelius
  • Reign: 180 to 192 AD

Commodus (born Lucius Aurelius Commodus) was a brutal, dictatorial, and bloodthirsty Roman Emperor. He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and a member of the Antonine dynasty. Avidius Cassius prevented him from becoming dictator (180–192). In “Gladiator,” Commodus was the target of many assassination attempts after he was falsely accused of killing his own father. After Lucilla’s scheme was foiled, it was Commodus’s slave, Narcissus, who killed the emperor in the context of a new conspiracy.

Year of the Five Emperors

  • Five emperors: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus
  • Year 193 AD

Soon after Commodus’s death, the Roman Empire entered a fresh era of turmoil known as the Year of the Five Emperors. Pertinax was deposed shortly after being proclaimed emperor on January 1, 193, and his position was taken by Didius Julianus. He was removed from his position as emperor due to widespread disapproval among Roman citizens, the Senate, and the Army. Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, and Clodius Albinus were imposed by the Roman troops into a civil war. The victor, Severus, took the throne as the 21st Roman Emperor after defeating all other challengers.


Septimius Severus: Founder of the Severan dynasty

  • Severan Dynasty
  • Libyan origins, Rome’s first African Emperor
  • Reign: 193 to 211 AD

After prevailing in the civil war that erupted during the Year of the Five Emperors, Septimius Severus established the Severan dynasty as a continuation of the Antonine and was declared Emperor by his troops (reigned from 193 to 211). Even though Severus set up a hereditary monarchy, the Libyan emperor nevertheless had to deal with succession disputes at the end of his life. Rome’s first African Emperor, Septimius Severus died in 211, perhaps from poisoning by his own son Caracalla, who replaced him alongside another son, Geta.

Caracalla: Military tyrant

  • Severan Dynasty
  • Son of Septimius Severus
  • Reign: from 211 to 217 AD

Beginning in the year 211, Caracalla, the younger brother of Geta and the son of Septimius Severus, ruled the Roman Empire with an iron fist. Caracalla, inspired by Alexander the Great, had his brother killed and then led an army against the Germans and the Parthians. His image as a military despot was bolstered by his massacres in Alexandria. Caracalla, before his death in 217, made the decision to issue the Edict of Caracalla, which declared all free males in the Roman Empire to be citizens.

Macrinus: Unpopular usurper

  • Severan Dynasty
  • Native of Mauretania (Africa), overthrew Caracalla
  • Reign: from 217 to 218 AD

After plotting Caracalla’s murder, Macrinus took over as Caracalla’s successor as prefect of the Praetorium. Macrinus, the first emperor to be from the equestrian aristocracy and a native of African Mauritania, was not a very successful ruler (217–218). After the monetary changes caused him to lose favor with the Roman soldiers, Macrinus attempted to leave the city of Antioch to join the Roman soldiers. He and his son co-emperor Diadumenian were both taken prisoner at the same time. Macrinus was put to death for trying to escape in the year 218.

Elagabalus: Child of many vices

  • Severan Dynasty
  • Nephew of Caracalla
  • Reign: 218 to 222 AD

Elagabalus (also known as Heliogabalus) was just 14 years old when he replaced Macrinus as ruler of the Severan in 218. He was the nephew of Caracalla. He gave some authority to his grandmother and mother, who influenced him. Elagabalus’ promotion of sun worship (hence the name Heliogabalus) and his role in the decision to transport the famed black stone of Emesa (a piece of meteorite) to Rome left an indelible mark on the empire’s history. He was killed by the mob and thrown into the Tiber River in the year 222 at the age of 18 years old.

Severus Alexander: Emperor murdered by his troops

  • Severan Dynasty
  • Cousin of Elagabalus
  • Reign: 222 to 225 AD

Severus Alexander, Elagabalus’s cousin and the final emperor of the Severan dynasty, ruled over a dull empire from 222 to 225. He tried to return the black stone to Emesa in an effort to impress his mother, Julia Mamaea, and so win over the favor of certain Romans. He was not a military expert and therefore, despite his reforms helping the poor, he became unpopular. After just three years in power, Emperor Severus Alexander died. He was likely assassinated by his own troops, who had criticized his pacifism. It was with his death that the military chaos began.


Which emperors succeeded during the Crisis of the Third Century?

  • The Crisis of the Third Century: from 235 to 268
  • Maximinus Thrax: declared by his soldiers, reigned from 235 to 238
  • Gordian I: appointed by his soldiers, reigned from March to April 238
  • Gordian II: son of Gordian I, from March to April 238
  • Pupienus and Balbinus: appointed by the Senate, reigned from April to July 238
  • Gordian III: nephew of Gordian II, reigned from 238 to 244
  • Philip the Arab: named by his soldiers, reigned from 244 to 249
  • Decius: named by his soldiers, reigned from 249 to 251
  • Trebonianus Gallus: appointed by his soldiers, reigned from 251 to 253
  • Valerian: appointed by his soldiers, reigned from 253 to 260
  • Gallienus: son of Valerian, from 253 to 268

The death of Severus Alexander was often seen as the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the “Military Anarchy”) a period that lasted for 33 years. Between the years 235 and 268, a slew of Roman emperors came and went, with the military often intervening and attempting to seize power. The Army was responsible for the deaths of several emperors. Maximinus Thrax (reign of 235–238), Gordian I (reign of March to April 238), Philip the Arab (reign of 244–249), Decius (reign of 249–251), Valerian (reign of 253–260), or Gallienus (reign of 253–263) all ruled during this time, coinciding with the list of the Thirty Tyrants (reign of 253–268).

The Illyrian emperors who tried to put an end to the Crisis of the Third Century

  • Illyrian emperors: from 268 to 285
  • Claudius II (Claudius Gothicus): named by Gallien, reigned from 268 to 270
  • Quintillus: Brother of Claudius II, reigned from August to October 270
  • Aurelian: declared by his soldiers, reigned from 270 to 275
  • Marcus Claudius Tacitus: appointed by the Senate, reigned from 275 to 276
  • Florianus: half-brother of Marcus Claudius Tacitus, reigned from June to September 276
  • Probus: appointed by his soldiers, reigned from 276 to 282
  • Carus: appointed by his soldiers, reigned from 282 to 283
  • Numerian: son of Carus and brother of Carinus, reigned from 283 to 284
  • Carinus: son of Carus and brother of Numerian, reigned from 284 to 285

Between the years 268 and 285, many Illyrian emperors tried to put a stop to the Crisis of the Third Century. From Illyria, Claudius II the Goth (268–270), Quintillus (August-October 270), Aurelian (270–275), Probus (276–282), and even Carinus (284–285) all tried to resolve the problem of the late third century. Many civilians were killed by the Roman military just within a few months after they seized control. But the dilemma of the Third Century was not resolved until Diocletian took power in 284.


Diocletian: Founder of the Tetrarchy

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Defeat of Carinus at the Battle of the Margus
  • Reign: 285 to 305

Diocletian, who became Emperor in 284, oversaw the conclusion of the crises that plagued the early third century and inaugurated the First Tetrarchy (a mode of government that allowed the emperor to delegate the governance of the Empire to counter invasions). After defeating Carinus at the Battle of the Margus, Diocletian quickly instituted a new government based on shared authority. Diocletian issued the Edict of Maximum Prices in 301, one of the numerous fruitless efforts he made to stabilize the Roman currency. The Great Persecution and the persecution of Christians also occurred during this time.

Maximian Herculius: Fighting Emperor

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Appointed by Diocletian
  • Reign: 285 to 305

Maximian Herculius, who was the second emperor of the First Tetrarchy, was one of those emperors who led a lot of military campaigns. During his reign, which started in 285, he worked to stop the Germanic invasion and get rid of the Bagaudae rebels threat in Gaul. Maximian Herculius, the father of Maxentius, put on a usurper’s costume the year after Diocletian asked him to step down in 305. He tried several times to obtain power again before being forced to commit suicide in 310.

Galerius: Guarantor of Diocletian’s Legacy

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Appointed by Diocletian
  • Reign: 293 to 311 AD

Galerius, who came from a military family, was a staunch supporter of the Tetrarchy and a direct successor to Diocletian. Beginning in 293, Galerius made use of the established protocol to rule as Roman Emperor in the East. Galerius swiftly surpassed Severus and Maximinus Daza as the most important figure in the Roman Empire. Sadly, he only had time to issue the Edict of Serdica before his death in 311. His passing marked the end of the Tetrarchy.

Constantius Chlorus: Father of Constantine I

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Appointed by Diocletian
  • Reign: 293 to 306 AD

On May 1, 305, Constantius Chlorus replaced Maximian Herculius as Emperor, becoming the second emperor to benefit from the Tetrarchy desired and established by Diocletian. Diocletian appointed him to his position. Before that, in the year 293, he was named Julius Caesar of the Western Empire and took part in the administration of the Roman state with the other tetrarchs. Constantius Chlorus, the father of Constantine I, died of natural causes in 306. He had helped rebuild the ancient city of Autun.

Tetrarchs of Maximinus Daza, Severus and Maxentius

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Maximinus Daza: nephew of Galerius, reigned from 305 to 313
  • Severus: general of Galerius, reigned from 305 to 307
  • Maxentius: son of Maximian Herculius, reigned from 306 to 312

Different tetrarchs succeeded each other for brief periods of time throughout the Tetrarchy period of the Roman Empire. In addition to the aforementioned figures, others including Maximinus Daza, Licinius, Severus, and Maxentius helped protect the Roman Empire before Constantine I came to power. Maxentius, the son of Constantius Chlorus, eliminated the previous tetrarchs before beginning his own 31-year rule (by defeating Maxentius, for example, in 312 at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge).

Licinius: Rival of Constantine I

  • Tetrarchy Period
  • Close to Galerius
  • Reign: from 308 to 324 AD

Co-emperor and personal friend of Galerius, Licinius was a powerful figure in the Tetrarchy. In 308, he was asked to oversee the eastern section of the Roman Empire. Licinius, a close friend of Constantine I’s, took part in a fratricidal battle between tetrarchs that resulted in the death of Maximinus Daza. He was also on Constantius I’s side when the Edict of Milan was issued in 313. After starting a civil war with a colleague, Constantine I eventually conquered and killed him at the Battle of Adrianople in 324.


Constantine I: First Christian emperor

  • Constantinian Dynasty
  • Son of Constantius Chlorus
  • Reign: 306 to 337 AD

In 306, Constantine I, son of Constantius Chlorus and a member of the Constantinian dynasty, was named Emperor. He was the final member of the Tetrarchy. He established the Constantinian dynasty after eliminating his rivals for the throne (at the battles of the Milvian Bridge and Andrinople). Through the Edict of Milan in 313, Constantine I ended the persecution of Christians throughout his rule, which lasted until 337. In order to unite the many Christian churches, he called for the First Council at Nicaea in 325, in the midst of his efforts to protect Christianity.

Constantine II and Constans I: Unfortunate heirs of Constantine

  • Constantinian Dynasty
  • Constantine II: son of Constantine I, reigned from 337 to 340
  • Constans I: son of Constantine I, reigned from 337 to 350

After Constantine I’s unexpected death in 337, there was a precarious time of transition. Members of the Constantinian dynasty, including the emperor’s three sons, fought among themselves and killed family members. After the Empire was split in two, the first emperors to go to war with them were Constantine II (337–340) and Constantine I. In the year 340, the second one killed the first one. Magnentius, one of Constantine I’s generals, killed the emperor and thereafter usurped power after Constantine I’s death in 350.

Constantius II: Worthy heir of Constantine

  • Constantinian Dynasty
  • Son of Constantine I
  • Reign: 337 to 361 AD

After the deaths of his two brothers, Constantius II became the only successor to the throne of the Roman Empire and ruled from 337 to 361. His efforts to fortify the Christian Church were similar to those of his predecessor, Constantine I. To bring the bishops together, he called a council in 353 and held it at Arles. Constantius II picked his opponent Julian as his successor after fending off many usurpation attempts (by Magnentius, Nepotian, Sylvain, etc.) before he died of sickness in 361.

Julian: Emperor who wished to restore paganism

  • Constantinian Dynasty
  • Nephew of Constantine I
  • Reign: 361 to 363 AD

Constantius II died in 361 and Julian the Apostate, also known as Julian II, who served as Caesar from 355 to 361 was named emperor. The Constantinian emperor declared his intention to revive polytheism inside the Roman Empire in 361, despite having been raised as a Christian. The nephew of Constantine I supported paganism as well. In addition, we owe Julian the satirical essay on philosophers named Misopogon (or “Beard-Hater”) in 363 just before the end of his rule.

Jovian: Christian general

  • Constantinian Dynasty
  • General of Julian
  • Reign: 363 to 364 AD

Constantinian Jovian, who was relatively unknown when he ascended to the throne in 363, was crowned emperor and led the military war against the Sasanian while dressed as a commander. Jovian’s willingness to make peace with Emperor Shapur II was a defining characteristic of his new role. Jovian, a devout Christian and commander under Julian, used his time in power to issue an edict of tolerance similar to that of his predecessor. He died very abruptly in 364 at the young age of 33, only eight short months after becoming Emperor.


Valentinians: Emperors with a tragic fate

  • Valentinianic Dynasty
  • Valentinian I: elected on the death of Jovian, reigned from 364 to 375
  • Valens: Younger brother of Valentinian I, reigned from 364 to 378
  • Gratian: eldest son of Valentinian I, reigned from 367 to 383
  • Valentinian II: younger son of Valentinian I, reigned 375 to 392

The terrible Valentinianic era begins with Jovian’s demise. The Valentinianic dynasty saw four rulers rule between the years 364 and 392. He ruled from 364 until his death from a stroke in 375. His brother Valens co-ruled with him until his death in 378 at the Battle of Adrianople, and then Gratian governed from 367 until he was defeated and murdered in 383. After his father, Valentinian I, was assassinated while Valentinian II was just four years old, he ruled under the supervision of his mother until his own death by hanging in 392.


Magnus Maximus: Usurper turned emperor

  • Theodosian Dynasty
  • Cousin of Theodosius I
  • Reign: 384 to 388 AD

Magnus Maximus, a cousin of Theodosius I and a member of the Theodosian family, usurped the Roman throne. In 383, as a usurper, he was victorious against Emperor Gratian at the Battle of Lutetia. A legendary ruler of Brittany, he was officially acknowledged as Eastern Emperor by Theodosius I in 384 and remained in that position until 388. Maximus, Theodosius I, and Valentinian II were the three emperors of the Roman Empire during that time. Maximus faced Valentinian II to seize Rome in 387 but was defeated by the coalition of Theodosius I and Valentinian II .

Theodosius I: Last emperor to rule a unified Roman Empire

  • Theodosian Dynasty
  • Cousin of Magnus Maximus
  • Reign: 379 to 395 AD

Theodosius I, who was given the name Augustus by Gratian, reigned as Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Additionally, he was a cousin of Magnus Maximus. It was during his reign that Christianity became the state religion thanks to his involvement in the Edict of Thessalonica. He ended pagan practices and, in this case, forbade the ancient Olympic Games from being held. It was generally agreed that Theodosius I was the final emperor of the reunified Roman Empire before the Honorius brothers took power.

After a long period of various Western Roman emperors, a barbarian from Germany named Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus (reigned 475–476 AD), the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, and grabbed the throne of Italy, which marked the fall of the Western Roman Empire on September 4, 476 AD.

By Hrothsige Frithowulf

Hrothsige works at Malevus as a history writer. His areas of historical interest include the ancient world and early Europe, as well as the history of modern culture.